I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achieved.
-Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
According to www.webometrics.info, there are more than 17,000 universities in the world, but getting a degree in many of them is quite costly. Many students around the world(and their families) get into big debts or have to work over sixty hours a week in order to afford an Education. Two thirds of the US college seniors who graduated in 2011 had student loan debt, with an average of over 27 000 USD per person. Reading those statistics I can’t stop thinking about those words from over 30 years ago:
With mass education, it turned out that most people could be taught to read and write. In the same way, once we have computer outlets in every home, each of them hooked up to enormous libraries, where you can ask any question and be given answers, you can look up something you’re interested in knowing, however silly it might seem to someone else. – Isaac Asiov
Isaac Asimov died in 1992, but if he could see the opportunities that the Internet is giving us in XXI century he would probably grin from ear to ear. Getting a degree in an university might be expensive, but there are much better options.
There are many websites on the Internet that now offer FREE of charge learning materials.
Now even very poor people can afford to be better educated than many of Harvard’s graduates, all they need is access to a computer(does not even have to be personal one, it could be the one that the local library offers for public use)
|-300 BC||Jomon||The early Japanese were gatherers, hunters and fishers.|
|300 BC-300||Yayoi||The intoduction of rice agriculture evokes the development of a social hierarchy and hundreds of small countries |
that started to unify into larger countries.
|300-538||Kofun||300 Japan is for the first time more or less united. Large tombs (kofun) were built for the deceased leaders.|
|538-710||Asuka||538/552 Introduction of Buddhism. |
604 Prince Shotoku's Constitution of seventeen articles is promulgated.
645 The Taika reform is introduced. The Fujiwara era starts.
|710-784||Nara||710 Nara becomes the first permanent capital. |
784 The capital moves to Nagaoka.
|794-1185||Heian||794 The capital moves to Heian (Kyoto). |
1016 Fujiwara Michinaga becomes regent.
1159 The Taira clan under Taira Kiyomori takes over the power after the Heiji war.
1175 The Buddhist Jodo sect (Pure land sect) is introduced.
1180-85 In the Gempei War, the Minamoto clan puts an end to Taira supremacy.
|1192-1333||Kamakura||1191 The Zen sect is intoduced. |
1192 Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed shogun and establishes the Kamakura government.
1221 The Jokyu Disturbance ends a struggle between Kamakura and Kyoto resulting in the supremacy of the Hojo regents in Kamakura.
1232 A legal code, the Joei Shikimoku, is promulgated.
1274 and 1281 The Mongols try to invade Japan twice, but fail mainly because of bad weather conditions.
1333 The Kamakura bakufu falls.
|1338-1573||Muromachi||1334 Kemmu restoration: the emperor restores power over Japan. |
1336 Ashikaga Takauji captures Kyoto.
1337 The emperor flees and establishes the Southern court in Yoshino.
1338 Takauji establishes the Muromachi government and a second emperor in Kyoto (Northern court).
1392 Unification of the Southern and Northern courts.
1467-1477 Onin war.
1542 Portuguese introduce firearms and Christianity to Japan.
1568 Nobunaga enters Kyoto.
1573 The Muromachi Bakufu falls.
|1575 The Takeda clan is defeated in the battle of Nagashino. |
1582 Nobunaga is murdered and succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
1588 Hideyoshi confiscates the weapons of farmers and religious institutions in the "Sword Hunt".
1590 Japan is reunited after the fall of Odawara (Hojo).
1592-98 Unsuccessful invasion of Korea.
1598 Death of Hideyoshi.
1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats his rivals in the battle of Sekigahara.
|1603 - 1867||Edo||1603 Ieyasu is appointed shogun and establishes the Tokugawa government in Edo (Tokyo). |
1614 Ieyasu intensifies persecution of Christianity.
1615 The Toyotomi clan is destroyed after Ieyasu captures Osaka Castle.
1639 Almost complete isolation of Japan from the rest of the world.
1688-1703 Genroku era: popular culture flourishes.
1792 The Russians unsuccessfuly try to establish trade relations with Japan.
1854 Commodore Matthew Perry forces the Japanese government to open a limited number of ports for trade.
|1868-1912||Meiji||1868 Meiji restoration. |
1872 First railway line between Tokyo and Yokohama.
1889 The Meiji Constitution is promulgated.
1894-95 Sino-Japanese War.
1904-05 Russo-Japanese War.
1910 Annexion of Korea.
1912 Death of emperor Meiji.
|1912-1926||Taisho||1914-18 Japan joins allied forces in WW1. |
1923 The Great Kanto Earthquake devastates Tokyo and Yokohama.
|1926-1989||Showa||1931 Manchurian Incident. |
1937 Second Sino-Japanese War starts.
1941 Pacific War starts.
1945 Japan surrenders after two atomic bombs are dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
1946 The new constitution is promulgated.
1952 The Allied Occupation of Japan ends.
1956 Japan becomes member of the UN.
1972 Normalization of relations to China.
1973 Oil crisis.
|1989-||Heisei||1993 The LDP loses its majority in the diet. |
1995 The Great Hanshin Earthquake hits Kobe.
Sarin Gas attack in the Tokyo subway by AUM sect.
Karate (空手)is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan. It was developed partially from indigenous fighting methods called te (手, literally "hand"; Tii in Okinawan) and from Chinese kenpō. Karate is a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes, and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands. Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles. A karate practitioner is called a karateka (空手家).
The Japanese language is very different from any western one. Also, it has three different writing systems. However, learning it is not as difficult a task as it seems. The language is both extremely beneficial, and practical. Three categories of words that exist in Japanese are -The native Japanese words constitute the largest category, followed by words originally borrowed from China in earlier history, and the smallest but a rapidly growing category of words borrowed in modern times from Western languages such as English. This third category also contains a small number of words that have come from other Asian languages.
Japan (Japanese: 日本 Nihon or Nippon; formally 日本国) is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Japan is sometimes referred to as the "Land of the Rising Sun".
Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū and Shikoku, together accounting for ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. Japan has the world's tenth-largest population, with over 127 million people. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de facto capital city of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.
Archaeological research indicates that people lived in Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other nations followed by long periods of isolation has characterized Japan's history. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries victory in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II, which came to an end in 1945 following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since adopting its revised constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament called the Diet.
टोकियो: जपानच्या वाकायामा प्रांतातील कोयासान विद्यापीठात विश्वरत्न डॉ . बाबासाहेब आंबेडकर यांच्या पूर्णाकृती पुतळ्याचे महाराष्ट्राचे मुख्यमंत्री श्री देवेंद्र फडणवीस व वाकायामाचे गवर्नर श्री योशिनोबू निसाका यांच्या हस्ते दि. १०/९/२०१५ ला अनावरण कार्यात आले. बाबासाहेबांच्या १२५व्या जायान्तिवर्षी जपानमध्ये कोयासान सारख्या बौद्ध संस्कृतीच्या सर्वाधिक प्राचीन अश्या केंद्रात बाबासाहेबांचे स्मारक होणे हि अतिशय गौरास्पद बाब आहे . अमेरिका , इंग्लंड पाठोपाठ आता जपान मध्ये सुद्धा स्मारक होणे म्हणजे बाबासाहेबांचे मूलमंत्र , स्वातंत्र्य , समता व बंधुत्व ह्या विचारांच्या खर्या अर्थाने प्रचार - प्रसार होय .
बाबासाहेबांचा पुतळा येहते उभारण्याची परवानगी दिल्याबद्दल कोयासन विद्यापीठाचे आम्ही सर्व ऋणी आहोत. त्याचप्रमाणे हा पुतळा उभारण्यासाठी सहकार्य केल्याबद्दल आम्ही महाराष्ट्र शासनाचे आभारी आहोत. दलित - बहुजन नेते , सामाजिक कार्यकर्ते , देश-विदेशातल्या सामाजिक संस्था यांनी हा पुतळा उभारण्याकरिता केलेला पाठपुरावा हा खरच वाखण्याजोग आहे , करिता आम्ही त्याचे सुद्धा आभारी आहोत . भन्ते सुराई ससाईजींचे आम्ही विशेष आभारी आहोत , ज्यांच्यामुळे बाबासाहेबांच्या विचारांचा जपानमध्ये व पूर्ण विश्वात प्रचार - प्रसार झाला . अंततः हे स्मारक उभारण्याकरिता प्रत्यक्ष व अप्रत्यक्षरित्या ज्यांनी सहकार्य केले त्या सर्वांचे आम्ही आभारी आहोत .
Tokyo : BAIAE is pleased to announce the news “The statue of great leader Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar has been inaugurated jointly by Maharashtra State(India) Hon Chief Minister Mr. Devendra Fadanvis and Wakayama State (Japan) Hon. Governor Mr. Yoshinobu Misaka on 10th Sept 2015.” This was the historic event coincidentally to take place while India celebrating 125th Birthday Anniversary. Establishment of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Statue in Japan after America and England is the honour to his basic message of Freedom , Equality and Fraternity.
We feel indebted to Koyasan University for establishment of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar's statue in University. We thank to various Social workers from india who consistently made effort to make statue and followed to Koyasan university for establishment there. Also we thank to India Govt and Dalit-Bhujan leaders for their assistance provided to this matter. Special thanks to Bhanti Surai Sasai, by whom there is propagation of Babasaheb’s thoughts in Japan and over the world. Overall we thank everybody who were involved in making, establishing and unveiling Event arrangement of the statue.
Thank you very much.
All BAIAE Japan organisation members
Dear brothers and sisters in the Sangha,
Please find copied below the essay that I wrote. Any comments and criticism is more than welcome.
With much metta, Mangesh
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Where are we since 1956?
The timely decision makes updated. This is proper time to reduce the loopholes in process of welfare of society. The roadmap of social betterment should concentrate to solve majority’s problems, not some of them. Fruits of welfare facility reach to the educated class. Whereas an individual is wholesome unit of society, so emphasis on small group makes welfare policies handicapped.
Currently Ambedkari SocietyRef-1 is made of four pillars - well-settled (Highly Educated), middle class (Educated), Poor (Basic Educated), BPL (Non-Educated). A survey conducted randomly in Maharashtra with some hypothesis, showed that percentage of four pillars in Ambedkari Society are as 13%-well-settled (Highly Educated), 28%-middle class (Educated), 23%-Poor (Basic Educated), 36%-BPL (Non-Educated)Ref-2.
Now the time to analyze the data to unearth the way for welfare of society -
A. Are poor able to uplift themselves?
B. Does government policies work to reduce the gap between poor and rich?
C. who will work for welfare of society?
Case ○A. Nearly 55% peoples of society are non-educated or educated up to primary level. Due to non-accessibility to well dwelling facility, they lived in Jhopalpatti of town/City/Metro, Toli of village, and Villages. Majority of them, not capable to worry for education of their children / infants as bread and butter is the most prior matter for them (Opinion supported by Civil Right Activist Dr. Bikayak Sen - 2009 Ref-3). And here is the problem that they are not sufficient to uplift themselves (General statement as there are very few exceptions).
Case ○B Government Policies and rules are sufficient to work for Society including Protection of Civil rights Act 1955, 1977 and Article 17, Constitution of India, which all in papers. But due to various uncountable reasons, an inhuman act happens. In 2005, 453 cases registered against Protection of Civil rights Act, 50% of cases yet pendingRef-4.
There are many schemes including post-matric scholarship for SC students, free education for BPL students, SC/ST doctorate/post-doctorate scholarships, but these all facility are not reachable to needy students so the growth rate of these peoples is very less. Hence, these facts reject the sufficiency of Government for welfare of society.
Case ○C By thinking on mentioned both possibilities, there is need to look for other shoulders: those will carry the cart of Ambedkari Mission.
Concerned peoples are mostly connected with organizations given by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar with well defined Aim/Objectives in constitutions of respective organizations such as ○D Political - Republic party of India (RPI), ○E Religious - BuddhaMahaSabha (BMS), ○F Social - Samata Sainik Dal (SSD).
Case ○D Political people should work for society; with this agenda, Scheduled Caste Federation has been converted to RPI after Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. The RPI has tried to work for society but after 2000, there were not enough members who stand for society’s work, besides RPI has been divided into uncountable numbers. Current scenario is perilous, each Gally has leader and party identified by his / her name e.g. RPI(A), RPI(B)…RPI(XYZ).
Some groups are trying to restart this battle by registering new Political Party with same or different agenda by using same Logo (Name) of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, but no other than Bahujan Samaj Party (UP) succeed to get state/ Jilha Parisad / Gram-Panchayat.
It was shocked, when State election of Maharashtra 2009 has been declared, sum of all votes of Ambedkari Political parties, not able to cross 4% votes of total population, whereas in 1967, RPI had received 12.71%(MH) votes. The current image of the political party is non-favorable for welfare of society.
Case ○E Concerned to BMS, TBMS…, these are the Dhammic organization, works to spread Dhamma to all corners of Society. They are doing their level best to make India as the Buddhist Country.
Case ○F Soldierly based SSD, was with Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar from Mahad Satyagrah to Diksha Bhoomi - Dhamma ChakraParivartan Din. Twentieth century has saluted for the powers of lions and tigers. Twenty first century is without lions and tigers, as majority of them have been booked the pages of History.
Now, large numbers of youth are unaware about lions and tigers. Actually, those lions and tigers were part of untouchable society, Ex-Army, well-educated, and ready to shoulder the carts of responsibility which has been started by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, from 1927 with Mahad Revolution.
SSD like military organizations has been banned after murder of Mr. M. K. Gandhi. In 1980’s, remaining lions & tigers has given rebirth to organization by adding All India label at Nagpur. After a decade, it has split into small groups, by non-measurable motive. Currently, few successors are active which makes SSD alive at some part of India with All India label and without it too.
The minute parts has tried to come together for noble cause, but the name, solder based activity, legal registry, dress-code, bank account, property, leadership and many normal / abnormal reasons, they failed to unite themselves.
Measure to Achieve
From the Above cases ○A,○B,○C,○D,○E,and ○F, there are two possibilities to bring society together for its welfare - ○1 SSD, ○2 Dhamma.
○1 SSD: As SSD was full of discipline, aimed to welfare of society, run by common people without personal / political benefits to educate children and illiterate peoples. In SSD, the involvement of 4 pillars, are highly possible as these 4 pillars are part of society.
Highly Educated can contribute by paying back to the society for welfare of Dhamma in terms of guidance, making resources available for education. Educated can contributes to shoulder the daily activity of education, by involving themselves in Shakha to implement the physical, dhammic, social, cultural and other essential education to budding generation. Remaining 2 pillars may get support from two strong educated pillars, where the theory of involvement of educated peoplesRef-5 for social welfare can be achieved.
The above interlink of all pillars of society can be achieved through the middle path of Buddha- which directs to pay respect to each other, by leaving EGO aside.
○2 Dhamma: Dhamma is the ultimate aim of Ambedkari Mission. Dr. Ambedkar said, “it was, indeed, a way of life, which recognizes liberty, equality and fraternity as the principles of life and which cannot be divorced from each other:……”Ref-5
For that, required manpower and plans can be chalk out with the SSD (assuming linked 4 pillars in SSD). As, these four pillars cover all part of society irrespective of age and gender. Whole society should understand the Dhamma, which can be achieved by SSD Shakha’s daily classes, with the help of educated Bhante / Dhamma Bandu.
The 4 pillars can work on long term plans to achieve the Political aspiration by collective covenant.
Ref-1:-Amedkari Society (SC/ST/NT/SBC)
Ref-2:-State-wise % of Population below poverty line by Social Groups 2004-05 (http://socialjustice.nic.in)
Ref-3:-Civil Rights Activist Dr. Binayak Sen (2009): About 50 per cent of children, equal percentage of scheduled tribes and 60 per cent of scheduled castes in the country are living under conditions of permanent famine as indicated by their Body Mass Index (BMI).
Ref-4:-Annual Report On The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 for The Year 2005 (http://socialjustice.nic.in/pdf/arpcr05.pdf)
Ref-5:- Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writing and Speeches Vol 17, (Speech of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, Agra, 18th March 1956).