There have been many Mahatmas in India whose sole object was to remove Untouchability and to elevate and absorb the depressed classes, but everyone has failed in their mission. Mahatmas have come, Mahatmas have gone but the Untouchables have remained as Untouchables.
-Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
According to www.webometrics.info, there are more than 17,000 universities in the world, but getting a degree in many of them is quite costly. Many students around the world(and their families) get into big debts or have to work over sixty hours a week in order to afford an Education. Two thirds of the US college seniors who graduated in 2011 had student loan debt, with an average of over 27 000 USD per person. Reading those statistics I can’t stop thinking about those words from over 30 years ago:
With mass education, it turned out that most people could be taught to read and write. In the same way, once we have computer outlets in every home, each of them hooked up to enormous libraries, where you can ask any question and be given answers, you can look up something you’re interested in knowing, however silly it might seem to someone else. – Isaac Asiov
Isaac Asimov died in 1992, but if he could see the opportunities that the Internet is giving us in XXI century he would probably grin from ear to ear. Getting a degree in an university might be expensive, but there are much better options.
There are many websites on the Internet that now offer FREE of charge learning materials.
Now even very poor people can afford to be better educated than many of Harvard’s graduates, all they need is access to a computer(does not even have to be personal one, it could be the one that the local library offers for public use)
|-300 BC||Jomon||The early Japanese were gatherers, hunters and fishers.|
|300 BC-300||Yayoi||The intoduction of rice agriculture evokes the development of a social hierarchy and hundreds of small countries |
that started to unify into larger countries.
|300-538||Kofun||300 Japan is for the first time more or less united. Large tombs (kofun) were built for the deceased leaders.|
|538-710||Asuka||538/552 Introduction of Buddhism. |
604 Prince Shotoku's Constitution of seventeen articles is promulgated.
645 The Taika reform is introduced. The Fujiwara era starts.
|710-784||Nara||710 Nara becomes the first permanent capital. |
784 The capital moves to Nagaoka.
|794-1185||Heian||794 The capital moves to Heian (Kyoto). |
1016 Fujiwara Michinaga becomes regent.
1159 The Taira clan under Taira Kiyomori takes over the power after the Heiji war.
1175 The Buddhist Jodo sect (Pure land sect) is introduced.
1180-85 In the Gempei War, the Minamoto clan puts an end to Taira supremacy.
|1192-1333||Kamakura||1191 The Zen sect is intoduced. |
1192 Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed shogun and establishes the Kamakura government.
1221 The Jokyu Disturbance ends a struggle between Kamakura and Kyoto resulting in the supremacy of the Hojo regents in Kamakura.
1232 A legal code, the Joei Shikimoku, is promulgated.
1274 and 1281 The Mongols try to invade Japan twice, but fail mainly because of bad weather conditions.
1333 The Kamakura bakufu falls.
|1338-1573||Muromachi||1334 Kemmu restoration: the emperor restores power over Japan. |
1336 Ashikaga Takauji captures Kyoto.
1337 The emperor flees and establishes the Southern court in Yoshino.
1338 Takauji establishes the Muromachi government and a second emperor in Kyoto (Northern court).
1392 Unification of the Southern and Northern courts.
1467-1477 Onin war.
1542 Portuguese introduce firearms and Christianity to Japan.
1568 Nobunaga enters Kyoto.
1573 The Muromachi Bakufu falls.
|1575 The Takeda clan is defeated in the battle of Nagashino. |
1582 Nobunaga is murdered and succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
1588 Hideyoshi confiscates the weapons of farmers and religious institutions in the "Sword Hunt".
1590 Japan is reunited after the fall of Odawara (Hojo).
1592-98 Unsuccessful invasion of Korea.
1598 Death of Hideyoshi.
1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats his rivals in the battle of Sekigahara.
|1603 - 1867||Edo||1603 Ieyasu is appointed shogun and establishes the Tokugawa government in Edo (Tokyo). |
1614 Ieyasu intensifies persecution of Christianity.
1615 The Toyotomi clan is destroyed after Ieyasu captures Osaka Castle.
1639 Almost complete isolation of Japan from the rest of the world.
1688-1703 Genroku era: popular culture flourishes.
1792 The Russians unsuccessfuly try to establish trade relations with Japan.
1854 Commodore Matthew Perry forces the Japanese government to open a limited number of ports for trade.
|1868-1912||Meiji||1868 Meiji restoration. |
1872 First railway line between Tokyo and Yokohama.
1889 The Meiji Constitution is promulgated.
1894-95 Sino-Japanese War.
1904-05 Russo-Japanese War.
1910 Annexion of Korea.
1912 Death of emperor Meiji.
|1912-1926||Taisho||1914-18 Japan joins allied forces in WW1. |
1923 The Great Kanto Earthquake devastates Tokyo and Yokohama.
|1926-1989||Showa||1931 Manchurian Incident. |
1937 Second Sino-Japanese War starts.
1941 Pacific War starts.
1945 Japan surrenders after two atomic bombs are dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
1946 The new constitution is promulgated.
1952 The Allied Occupation of Japan ends.
1956 Japan becomes member of the UN.
1972 Normalization of relations to China.
1973 Oil crisis.
|1989-||Heisei||1993 The LDP loses its majority in the diet. |
1995 The Great Hanshin Earthquake hits Kobe.
Sarin Gas attack in the Tokyo subway by AUM sect.
Karate (空手)is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan. It was developed partially from indigenous fighting methods called te (手, literally "hand"; Tii in Okinawan) and from Chinese kenpō. Karate is a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes, and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands. Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles. A karate practitioner is called a karateka (空手家).